The sixteen essays in this collection focus on the impact made by nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century philology in the fields of medieval studies and language studies, and in the construction of Northern European national identities, mythologies, and folklore. If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:.
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See 1 question about Die Trolle…. Lists with This Book. Dec 17, Ariadne rated it really liked it Shelves: Feb 03, Lutz rated it it was amazing. Elsewhere he maintained that the highest goal of Altertumswissenschaft that any philologist must pursue who wishes to elevate himself to the pinnacle of his science is to subsume all the individual facts into the unified characteristic quality of antiquity, to observe that characteristic 20 quality in the details, and to understand its spirit in all its contexts.
In this conception, an idea of Altertumskunde is urged that consistently integrates individual disciplines and directs them toward a common goal. If one reviews the rest of the nineteenth century, one finds a great variation in approaches that contributed to this idea of such an integrative Altertumskunde. Above all other, Jacob Grimm is the representative of a form of Altertumskunde that is based on the notion of the Volksgeist, the spirit of a people. With his works on law, mythology, language, and literature he sought to establish an overview of the German that is, the Germanic past. The integrative center of these phenomena he saw in a prevailing Volksgeist which suffused all these areas, and which had to be pinned down.
Language, beliefs, and law were, to his mind, to be understood as emanations of this spirit — language, for him, was the most im21 portant, and capable of revealing unexpected information. Grimm embraced this integrative approach by consciously avoiding physical facts — in other words: he put forward an expressly philological Altertumskunde.
He states programmatically in the first chapter of his history of the German language that there is more vital evidence available about peoples than bones, weapons, and graves, and that this evidence is their lan22 guages. The rise of comparative linguistics also promoted the interest in the culture and civilization of the Indo-European peoples. It was thought that by means of etymology one could trace a path back to the neolithic age. There is, in other words, a 24 linguistic paleontology.
Schrader does, however, urge the proper application of this method if it is to perform the best service. By proper application, he meant not only the use of linguistic historical arguments on a contemporary level, but that the appropriate consideration of pre-historic research was also part of this.
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In contrast to the hitherto one-sided linguistic construction of comparative linguistics in the area of Indo-European pre-history, Hehn, according to Schrader, had primarily taken up historical combinations: the tradition of classical antiquity, of the Celts, of the Germani and so on.
Although the linguistic equations are of great significance, the argument must take care not to ascribe new meaning to old words or to interpret 27 recent borrowings as ancient inheritance. The cultivation of plants together with the taming of domestic animals progressed from east to west and subsequently to the north, and in the process changed human beings and their activities. He overcomes the old romantic, popular natural perspective in favor of a concept of culture in which cul28 ture and nature are contrasting concepts. In this work he stressed that all three relevant sciences — botany, archeology, and lin30 guistics — were to be given equal weight.
In practice, however, it soon becomes clear that he had a hierarchical view of these subjects, which assigned to linguistics an expanding and a corrective function. This fusion of subjects became in practice a hierarchy of subjects.
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If a word is only attested in certain areas, then pre-historic archeological finds, literary evidence, or linguistic considerations of a 31 general nature must support the argument. A significant criterion in this thesis is the migration of the Angles and Saxons from the continent. If German and English, or German and Norse are in agreement on a name, he argues, we would have to conclude a priori that the plant in question was not yet or was no longer cultivated in the Nordic countries before the 32 migration of the Anglo-Saxons.
Here too, the further considerations of occurrences in only certain areas were applied. Schrader was criticized as having been under the influence of certain preconceived ideas about the culture of the Indo-Euro35 peans. Although Hirt concedes that properly employed linguistic science has some justification in the investigation of Indo-European culture and constructs a cultural history on this , he qualifies this approach by arguing that priority must be given to what we know of the oldest living conditions of the individual peoples, then archeological evidence can be added, and only then, when we have considered these things, can language teach us anything, primarily whether the objective correspondences are coinci36 dental or go back to some collectively experienced ancient past.
This procedure sounds at first quite reasonable, but when we take into account some of the Germanic aspects of particular interest here, it takes a new turn. The home of the Indo-Europeans and the Germani is assumed to be one and the same — and that is of decisive importance for the whole development of historical linguistics.
fotinokumo.ga He maintains that for centuries the Germani have dwelt on their ancient native soil, just as Tacitus presumed, and that this fact should also be evident in the language, which Hirt re37 gards, in fact, as an Ursprache, that is, as a language that goes back to pre-historic times. There are objective, factual differences in their views — for example on the question of the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans Europe or Asia or the level of civilization of the Indo-Europeans knowledge of agriculture and fixed dwelling-places, for example. There are also methodological differences.
Hoops has the closest affinities with linguistic paleontology. From the integrative perspective, Hehn and Schrader agree in the assumption of a Germanic peripheral culture that is part of the flow of civilization spreading from the east in a westerly and northerly direction. Hoops and Hirt agree on the thesis of origins: a direct line in a geographical and ethnic sense leads from Indo-European to Germanic and finally to German.
In other words: an integrative Germanic Altertumskunde is of itself a science that is oriented to contents and to the state of research at any one time. The Germanist Friedrich Kauffmann attempted an integrative approach that would avoid the dangers of a non-empirically based approach, and his Deutsche Altertumskunde appeared in two volumes in and The stylistic laws of popular creativity are, he maintains, no less characteristic in language and poetry than in social, economic and commercial products, though in the latter they are clearer, and their essential features are therefore much easier to comprehend.
If one reduces this argument to the concept of style, then Kauffmann can rely on an established tradition. When Friedrich Schiller writes of style that it is nothing more than the highest form of representation, free from all subjective and also contingent objective determinants, then style is obviously an individual and ethno-specific formal quality of a characteristic kind. Kauffmann was not one of the collaborators on the Reallexikon — in which there is no article on style in general only artistic styles were briefly dealt with, as in A. On the other hand, however, new subject areas have developed in recent times: paleo-botany, paleo-zoology, soil science, metallurgy and others, which all contribute to academic and scientific research into the Germani.
A single-discipline approach brought about notable academic and scientific results, but the inherent need for specialization also had its shortcomings.
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The call for an interdisciplinary approach is an expression of this. If one takes an overview of Germanic Altertumskunde, one can observe the increasing participation of diverse disciplines.
Initially, Altertumskunde was led by the philologists. As the next step, the study of specimens and objects found by antiquarians was added. At the end of the nineteenth century, pre-historic archeology entered in the guise of a new academic subject. The twentieth century was marked by the additional contribution of the natural sciences. While, on the one hand, the academic and scientific basis of Germanic Altertumskunde expanded, there arose, on the other, the problem of how to combine these disciplines into a unified concept.
The question arises whether, with the structuring of academic science by disciplines, as has happened over the past century of university history, an era of cultural history could be described in a comprehensive manner. As early as the first edition of the Reallexikon, Hoops referred to the establishing of closer contact between the different branches of Germanic cultural history that have in recent decades become more and more estranged as a consequence of the increasing specialization of research as a main objective of his undertaking.
In particular, the establishing of links between pre-history and history and between archeology and linguistics was one of his goals. Beyond the Reallexikon too, voices were heard calling for close contact between disciplines. The author urged a closer link as necessary between academic 41 disciplines. The goal of closer contact is a relative notion, as a cursory glance at the present eighteen volumes of the Reallexikon demonstrates. If there are archeological, historical, and philological contributions to an article, contact will lead to mutual stimulation, to possible changes, and to the raising of new questions.
But mutually conflicting views may also remain, in which case the editors see their role not as trying to harmonize the state of research, but to document it. A politicized nationalistic approach could, of course, become dangerously distorted, and did so between the First and Second World Wars in the lead-up to and during National Socialism, also in some major scholarly undertakings, although individual contributors to such projects did not always share the political direction of their editors. Grimm, Geschichte, — Schrader Berlin: Borntraeger, , repr.
Schrader, Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte Jena: Costenoble, 3rd ed. Jahrtausend n. Beck and others Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, —. Unless otherwise stated, reference here is to the original edition. Berlin: Akademie, , Bratuscheck, 2nd ed. Klussmann Leipzig: Teubner, Grimm, Geschichte, 7. Cherbuliez, Hehn, Kulturpflanzen, XX. Hirt, Indogermanica, I, V—VII. Origo Gentis: The Literature of Germanic Origins Herwig Wolfram T — the literary examination of the origins of a given people, which in the Germanic context is the theme of this 1 chapter — does not constitute a literary genre in its own right, but is found in connection with various different genres to produce what is in fact a genus mixtum, which conveys details of the origins of a particular people by using various narrative patterns.
Examples of the origo gentis may be found in heroic epics, may introduce or form part of ethnographic works, chronicles, biographies and legends, or may even be used in official 2 writings either as justificatory support or as a learned excursus or digres3 sion. The few members of the family who survived the capture of Troy were forced to travel the world and found new cities and peoples everywhere. Why should there not be a Franco, the father of the Franks, among them, if there was certainly an Aeneas, the founder of Rome. Between A. Gregory of Tours who died in or wrote ten books of Frankish history.
Isidore of Seville wrote in his history of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi, or more specifically of their kings, based on classical sources, with 9 an introductory origo of the Goths which is exclusively etymological.
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In the seventh century there followed the so-called Fredegar chronicles, and the first written version of the Lombardic Langobardic tradition with which Paul the Deacon introduced his history of the Lombards just before Bede used myths of origin to preface his history of the AngloSaxon Church in , and Celtic material appeared in Britain, too, with Gildas in the sixth, and with the Historia Brittonum British History as10 cribed to Nennius in the ninth century. In the tenth century Widukind of Corvey dealt with Old Saxon origins, again using earlier material such as the Translatio sancti Alexandri and Cosmas of Prague and the Gallus Anonymus began their respective histories of the Czechs and the Poles at the start of the twelfth century with an origo gentis.
Elements are found preserved in vernacular works, too, such as the Anglo-Saxon poems of Widsith, Deor and indeed of Beowulf, and also in the Old Russian chronicle of Nestor of Kiev.
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